The municipality of Forni di Sotto is located in the northwestern sector of Friuli Venezia Giulia, in the province of Udine (GPS coordinates: LAT. 46 ° 24’0 ″ N and LONG. 12 ° 40’0 ″ E) and located at a altitude of 777 m. s.l.m .. It borders the municipalities of Forni di Sopra (UD), Sauris (UD), Ampezzo (UD), Socchieve (UD), Tramonti di Sopra (PN) and Claut (PN).

It covers an area of ​​93.54 square kilometers along the east-west direction in the upper Val Tagliamento, with an altitude range of about 1900 m. (it passes, in fact, from 550 m. s.l.m. of the bed of the Tagliamento river, to 2473 m. s.l.m. of Mount Bivera).

The municipality of Forni di Sopra also extends in the northwestern sector of Friuli Venezia Giulia, in the province of Udine (GPS coordinates: LAT. 46 ° 25’2 ″ N and LONG. 12 ° 34’6 ″ E) and placed at an altitude of 906 m. s.l.m .. It borders the municipalities of Forni di Sotto (UD), Sauris (UD), Lorenzago di Cadore (BL), Socchieve (UD), Tramonti di Sopra (PN) and Claut (PN).

It extends over an area of ​​81.66 square kilometers, also along the east-west route in the upper Val Tagliamento, with an altitude range of about 1791 m. (it passes, in fact, from 790 m. s.l.m. of the bed of the Tagliamento river, to 2581 m. s.l.m. of Mount Cridola).

The climate of Forni di Sotto and Forni di Sopra can be defined as sub-alpine. The duration of night frost (on average) is around 25 weeks a year.

The valley of the two Forni is arranged along the East – West direction, so the transits of the NE and E – NE winds, which are the most frequent and also the coldest, are favored. Other winds are almost absent, as we are facing a closed valley. There are, however, in the summer periods, both upstream and downstream breezes, mainly generated by thermal currents. Night frost can sometimes occur even late, often in late spring, causing damage to crops and fruit plants.

For a more precise and precise analysis of the weather and climate conditions, however, it is necessary to refer to scientifically proven measurements.

Analyzing the climatogram created using the data obtained from the OSMER FVG website ( from October 2004 to September 2016, the precipitation curve is always far superior to the temperature curve, so there is no they are dryness problems for plants; there is also a great summer rainfall, as it indicates that the plants are not subjected to water stress.

The rainfall, as a whole, is not very high; there is low rainfall in the winter months. In Forni di Sotto (data from the last 15 years) the average annual rainfall is around 1,825 mm, while in Forni di Sopra (data from the last 15 years) the average annual rainfall is around 1,800 mm. (Data provided by the weather stations of the Civil Protection of Friuli Venezia Giulia).

From January 2015 and until August 31, 2016 (reference years for Solaris FR 360 plants already planted for testing), the rainfall data were as follows:

If we examine the monthly temperature curve, it can be seen that these are on average above zero for 11 months a year; the hottest month is July, while the coldest ones are December and January. It is observed that the increase in temperatures is quite sudden from February onwards, while the decrease in temperature is less abrupt from September onwards.

There are five months of safe frosts and they are the months from November to March.

The periods with probable frosts, on the other hand, also include the months of October and April.

From these considerations it can be deduced that the period of safe vegetation for the plants is 7 months, ie from April to October.

The continentality index (Ic) calculated is 18.10, a value that places the study areas in a semi-continental climate.

The thermal index (It) gives a value of 122.7 and the annual sum of temperatures (Tp) is 961.25; the two values ​​indicate that the bioclimate is of the supertemperate type.

The umbrotype returns a value of 12.89 therefore of the hyperhumid type.

Minimum temperatures rarely drop below – 15.0 ° C.

Two identical weather stations were installed within the “Drogne” and “Tavarons” experimental fields: the model is a PCS FWS 20 from PCE Instruments. Data sampling takes place every twenty minutes and everything is recorded on computers. As for the Pradas experimental field, we rely on a Davis professional weather station, installed about 30 meters away from the field.

Furthermore, as already mentioned, a pyranometer was installed near the “Drogne” field for the correct measurement of solar radiation.

From a geological point of view, Forni di Sotto and Forni di Sopra, as well as the whole Carnic region, are part of the Southern Eastern Alps, a mountain range with southern thrustvergenti in activity from the lower-middle Miocene to today extended from western Veneto to the Italian-Slovenian border. Along the Upper Tagliamento valley (which from a geographical point of view is located on the border between the southern Carnic Alps to the north and the Carnic Prealps to the south), a rocky substrate of predominantly Mesozoic age emerges. To the north (Southern Carnic Alps) lands of predominantly lower-middle Triassic age emerge (Fm. Of Werfen, Fm. Of Lusnizza, conglomeratic sequences of the Upper Anisico, Dolomia dello Sciliar) locally accompanied at the base by even older soils of the Permian age (Fm. In Bellerophon) which emerge from the bottom of the main valleys following glacial and fluvial erosion (Valle del But, Valle del Chiarsò, Valle del T. Pontaiba). The northern Carnic Prealps, on the other hand, are almost completely made up of rocks from the upper Trias (Fm. Di Raibl, Fm. Del Monticello, Dolomia di Forni and Dolomia Principale).

Along the upper Tagliamento valley, the oldest Permo-Triassic soils come into contact with the more recent rocky sequences of the northern Carnic Prealps. The contact is therefore anomalous, placing the oldest soils above the more recent ones. It is linked to tectonic reasons: along the Tagliamento valley, buried under the Quaternary blankets, there is in fact an overlapping structure in an E-W direction: the Upper Tagliamento line.

Other important tectonic dislocations characterize the area in question: the main one is the so-called Line of Sauris which overlaps rocks of the Permo-Trias on more recent rocks of the Middle Trias. This overthrust which affects the entire northern slope of the upper Tagliamento valley from Forni di Sopra to Ovaro has generated extensive bands of cataclastic rocks that characterize, for example, the entire Torente Auza basin.

The Tagliamento valley between Forni di Sopra and Forni di Sotto shows clear evidence of glacial modeling. Unfortunately, there is little evidence of the presence of glaciers prior to the last glacial advance (Last Glacial Maximum LGM, which occurred in the Carnic Alps about 20,000 years ago). The only evidence of ancient glaciations seems to be given by cemented glacial deposits (“ancient moraines” of Pisa, 1973) present in scattered outcrops near the Sacrovint Bridge. These deposits are given by a well-cemented conglomerate with pebbles of a very varied size and nature, from sub-rounded to angular, partly altered and unmade, completely devoid of classification and orientation. The matrix is ​​abundant and mostly gray or yellowish.

The fundamental morphological imprint is instead linked to the events since the last glacial maximum. In fact, the geological evidence related to the last glaciation is more significant: extensive accumulations of loose material with abundant lithoid fragments, mostly variously rounded, of very heterogeneous dimensions (from a few cm to several m.), Available chaotic, immersed in a clayey, sandy or pebbly matrix, often very abundant, emerge near the locality of Melares. It should be noted that the clasts present represent all the lithological types emerging in the upper Tagliamento and sometimes also metamorphic and igneous rocks from neighboring valley basins.

I take as testimony this writing, taken from “Monographic notes of the Municipalities of Forni di Sopra and di Sotto Savorgnani“ Tip. Biasutti – S. Daniele, 1893, where the origins of the Forni Savorgnani, the inhabitants of Forni di Sotto and Forni di Sopra, are explained.

The origins of the two Savorgnani Forni are by no means unknown: but from the toponymic inductions and the coins excavated here and there, it is possible to trace them back to the Roman era. The etymology of Vico, from vicus – capital village of the municipality of Forni di Sopra, and one of the hamlets of Forni di Sotto, as well as the name of various places that could be adduced, all derived from Latin, and in terms of coins suffice it to mention, among others, a recent one of the emperor Gordian (3rd century) found near Andrazza.

After the fall of the Roman Empire (476 AD) this valley also suffered the various incursions of the barbarians, who with the Lombards left their traces in several sarcophagi that were found here, containing among the many bones, fibulae, pins and others characteristic ornaments of those peoples.

The first document that certifies the existence of one of the two countries, we have it in a donation made in the year 778 by Duke Tassilone (1) to the Abbey of Sesto. This Tassilone was Duke of Bavaria, descendant of the Agilulfi lineage, who at the instigation of his wife Luitberga daughter of Desiderio, having rebelled against Charlemagne, was deposed by him and locked up in a cloister. With this deed of donation, the Duke ceded the village of Forni with its appurtenances to the Abbey of Sesto, in suffrage of the soul of his King:

From this deed of donation it emerges first of all that a village of the Forni was juridically subject to the abbey of Sesto, and between two I would tend to consider it to be the village of Forni di Sopra, because precisely in its territory there is a place still today called Badia, and Cella is still called a fraction of it today. Secondly, it appears from the act itself, that at that time there were iron and copper mines in the territory, which would also be confirmed by the very name of Forni. These mines, however, were perhaps completely exhausted so that today the place of their ancient existence cannot be deciphered.

For the course of over four centuries there are no other documents that mention the Savorgnani Forni, with the exception of the castle of “Forno” mentioned several times before the 10th century. Actually, there were three castles in the Savorgnani Forni; one located north-west of Forni di Sotto in a prominence still called “Çiastelàt”, the other in Forni di Sopra on a hill between the hamlets of Cella and Andrazza still called “Cuol di Çiastiel”, and a third located south -east of Andrazza above a prominence called “Sacquidic”. The latter seems to have been a simple lookout castle built there to guard the road below which was located on the banks of the Tagliamento. Since it was then destroyed by fire, and only some small Aquileians (2) were found in the excavations, it is not possible to decipher the time of its foundation with certainty; but there are, however, data that lead us to believe that it does not go back beyond the twelfth century. Therefore another must be the castle of Forno, remembered, as I said, even before the tenth century; but which was between the other two, there are no data to be able to define with certainty.

However, as I mentioned above, there are no documents regarding the town in the following four centuries, it is not even well founded to suppose that the town followed the events of the abbey to which it was subject; and therefore among the twenty-two villages included in the concession made in 967 by Otto I to the Patriarch of Aquileia Rodoaldo, it can be argued that the village of Forni was also included. In any case, he is certain that at the beginning of the thirteenth century the two municipalities were already under the patriarchal dominion; and in 1224, in which year the boundaries between Forni di Sotto and the municipality of Claut were established, a steward of Patriarch Bertoldo was already among the witnesses. The Patriarchs, however, only held the high dominion within themselves, and invested the jurisdiction of the land of the feudal lords or lords, whom they bound themselves in time of war, paid the landemium and an annual tribute. Among the feudal lords of the Forni we find remembered: in 1277 a Diopoldo, a Francesco, a Raimondo and a Verna; and later a Mainardo and an Arnoldo. We are also reminded of a Sturido, a Bartolomeo and Zuffone, a Paolo, and a Raimondino. Then, between 1253 and 1255, a Guarnieri di Artegna, a certain Stefano di Zegliacco, a certain Enrico di Mels and a Rogerino from Milan appear invested by the Patriarchs of special farms in the territory of Forni. In 1300 we find a certain Francesco di Socchieve invested with the Lordship of Forni, who solemnly undertakes with the inhabitants of the two municipalities to maintain them in the exercise of all their rights and customs that his father Leonardo and Arnoldo quondam Mainardo had previously respected (3).

When this Francis died, the Patriarch invested with the jurisdiction of Forni certain Gualtiero quondam Ermano di Nonta against whom the inhabitants and together with them the children of the aforementioned Francis claimed from the Patriarch. They complained that he was venal in causes, and that in sentences unfavorable to him, from meriga he appealed to his own vassals. They said that he never wanted to effect a sentence, already pronounced, and that he decided many disputes at his own will. The Patriarch had their complaints examined by Friar Giovanni Abbate of Rosazzo, who, after hearing the parties, ruled that Gualtiero could not at his own will harass the inhabitants of Forni; but to hear and defend the reasons of each, and to pronounce a just sentence the local statutes, and once pronounced send it to effect, always without prejudice to the right of mutual appeal between the two municipalities, or in third instance by the Patriarch, as had always been in ancient times practiced. This sentence was pronounced in Gemona in the year 1320. Six years later, Gualtiero sold the castles and jurisdiction of Forni to Ettore Savorgnano for 150 double marks of Aquileian currency to Ettore Savorgnano, who from that point kept dominion in his lineage for almost five centuries; whence the name of Forni Savorgnani came to the two municipalities.

These feudal lords depended, as I said above, on the Patriarchs from whom they had to repeat the investiture at each change of dominion. However, they did not reside in the villages, but kept in the two municipalities a steward who was elected by the neighborhood and confirmed by the Lord to whom he swore “to do the useful, lawful and necessary things for the municipality and to keep the reasons of their patrons and their legitimate representatives “. Together with the meriga who in the same way was elected and confirmed by the Lord and the jurors decided the disputes in the first instance. The appeal (second instance) was made between the two municipalities; and crimes of blood and final appeal decisions (III instance) were reserved to the feudal lord. If a dispute arose with other municipalities, or if there were any complaints against the same feudal lord, the decision was reserved to the Patriarch, and the patriarchal dominion ceased to the Lieutenant of the Republic; which also acted as the Supreme Court in other cases.

The meriga was required to give immediate participation in every crime to the Lord, with the exception of simple personal offenses for which he had to let 24 hours pass before denouncing them, so that the parties could, better thinking about their cases, make peace. And if it was a matter of blood, they had to be reported even if they were random and not attributable to the author. And since it often happened that such facts were hidden by the meriga to avoid the trouble and expense of those long trials; as early as 1560 they began to deliver to the stewards of the two countries two numbered books marked paper by paper with the Savorgnano stamp in which all the events that had occurred and the complaints made with the relative dates and witnesses were to be recorded under penalty of L. 100 for each commission. In cases of violent death or injury with danger, he had to ensure that the wounded person or the corpse was split visited by a surgeon assisted by a notary who would write his judgment on it himself. These books were then visited every year by the Captain of Osoppo in the visit he made on behalf of the Savorgnani to the two municipalities. In the judgments, in addition to respect for public officials, the utmost respect was required for Almighty God as well as for the Virgin and the Saints, and whoever dared to pronounce a blasphemy against them fell irremediably in the penalty of Marca an etiam at the discretion of the Judge according to the quality of blasphemy.

Thus the violation of the precepts of the Church formed a matter of judgment. If, by way of example, someone, except in cases of necessity, had dared to work, the party would fall under the penalty of L. 2.00 (dated 1640).

In addition to judicial affairs, the meriga also presided over the administrative interests of the municipality. These interests were treated in the neighborhood which consisted of the meeting and the vote of all the heads of the families of the town, and met in Forni di Sopra on the fountain square and in Forni di Sotto on the hill of San Martino. In these neighborhoods, besides the meriga and the steward, all the other public officials were elected; and eventually special procurators were also elected in their disputes, and in times of charistas, special agents for the common provision of foodstuffs. They also deliberated in these neighborhoods on the good governance of the woods, on the enjoyment of pastures and huts, on the interests of the Churches, on the settlement of the roads, on the clearing of snow and on purchases or sales of common interest. In the vicinity, certain juridical formalities were also prescribed or abuses which had existed in the forum were proscribed.

If we do then to consideriving the economic trend of the two countries, although three centuries ago they had only 1,200 inhabitants together, we are presented with a picture of desolating misery. Except for the few artists indispensable to social coexistence and a few weaver who took to work in the nearby cities, we see the industry almost completely neglected. The products of the fields up to the past century cultivated purely with barley, rye and broad beans, gave them food for just two months, and the fruits of pastoralism had to make up for the rest. And moreover, there were a thousand burdens, a thousand levels to pay. There were levels with the monastery of Gemona (1376-1253), there were naturally some with the feudal lords to whom, at least in the last three centuries, each town paid. L. 98.00 for the tithe alone, there were levels for the Churches and since 1449 many generals were made to the Churches of San Giacomo and S. Floriano in. Forni di Sopra, as they still continue today. And then there were the duties of muda in the transport of foodstuffs, the duties of beccaria, the tax of the millstone, of the campatico and you go on saying. In addition, the maintenance of their cernidae in wartime was their responsibility, the riatto and the maintenance of the roads, the clearing of snow, and the administration of carriages for public services according to the needs were in charge. And almost all of this was not enough, added to the costs of the very frequent and interminable disputes that they sustained with the neighboring towns and often between the same two municipalities of Forni.

In the thirteenth century over the questions of ecclesiastical jurisdiction between the two municipalities that was brought up to Pope Innocent III; there was the question of boundaries between Forni di Sotto and the municipality of Claut, a question that was resolved in 1224. In the following century, beyond the collision, already mentioned, with Gualtiero di Nonta, in 1320, and the resurgence of the ecclesiastical question between the two municipalities that stirred in 1347; there was with Codore the famous question for Mount Mauria. Pagan Savorgnano boasted the jurisdiction, and Forni di Sopra the domain of this mountain, domain and jurisdiction that was contested by the Cadorino people. The Patriarch delegated the nobleman Giacomo Marnet Marnet of Istria as judge in this controversy, but he was unable to take on this role due to his many affairs; the Patriarch charged the Captain of Codore, certain Alessandro Brugno, to make the sentences in question. He hired ten Cadore men of the oldest and most disinterested in question, and summoned the Savorgnano with ten upright men from Forni di Sopra, and after hearing the reasons for the part; he decreed that the Rio Stabio and the Torre torrent marked the borders between the two countries. The deed of termination was written above the place, and precisely on the sources of the Tagliamento on 6 June 1353. This question, however, became more severe twenty years later under the Patriarch Marquardo who committed to re-establish this dispute in Rinaldo della Porta; and again it was agitated in the following century from 1435 to 1441 for the repair of the road, and in 1484 for the pastures and finally in 1609 for the cutting of a wood on Mauria itself. Indeed having at the time those of Forni tried to oppose the cut; in April of that year, a large multitude of fully armed Cadorini soon came out and exterminated the wood. There they caught, among others, a poor blacksmith from Forni, and loaded him with beatings, they locked him up all battered for three months in prison, until all matters were finally settled by the Captain and the Savorgnani.

At the same time that, returning to the thirteenth century, Forni di Sopra was agitated by the question of Mauria; he also moaned under the horrors of hunger. The horrible plague broke out in 1348 that desolated the entire province and depopulated the villages in Carnia; they kept behind some years of horrible famine, and the memory of the two scourges that came to the poor inhabitants the angaria of the third scourge was still recent: war.

When Patriarch Marquardo died, Cardinal Filippo d ‘Alansone was elected in his stead in 1381; but soon a faction of seditious men took sides against the newly elected one, headed by Federico Savorgnano. After various struggles against the Patriarch’s party in Friuli; Savorgnano entered Carnia, made Tolmezzo capitulate and continued along the Socchieve canal to conquer Codore. “But foreseeing, (I quote the exact words of an ancient memo) that the Codore enterprise would have proved difficult with regard to the coming winter, which usually brings large amounts of snow to those mountainous parts, a notable impediment in the conduct of armies; suspended for the best season to continue it. But holding back the neighborhood Savorgnano that season in Carnia (probably in his Forni possessions), he secretly managed the surrender of Codore. To better facilitate his outcome, he sent you some trustees from his castle in Forno under the pretext of dealing as they used to, my businessrci, and made the surrender. Filippone della Torre, who had been placed by the Patriarch Captain of Codore, was treacherously taken prisoner and so without bloodshed Codore also took the side of Savorgnano ».

In 1412 these villages again had to endure oppression and perhaps harassment by the Hungarians who passed here with the Misitino for the occupation of Cadore; it being more than likely that the two countries have sided with. Tristan their Lord to support the parts of the Republic. In this century from 1465 to 1471 they also had to supply cernids to cope with the various incursions of the Turks; and beyond the wars, collisions were not lacking either, but they stirred with more violence than ever between the two municipalities of Forni.

There were issues in 1406 due to borders, which certainly Nicolò da Venzone lent to smooth them out, they were in 1420 for pastures in the locality of Daguossas, in 1488 for Mount Fluattas that Tristan Savorgnano decreed that it was enjoyed by Forni di Sopra from the day di S. Michele throughout May, and reserved the other months for Forni di Sotto. But the great question that arose in this century between the two countries was the dismemberment of the two parishes.

Already, as I mentioned, since 1205 the question had been agitated which of the two churches, that is, that of S. Maria in Forni di Sopra or that of S. Maria and Martino in Forni di Sotto, should be the matrix. The controversy was forwarded to Pope Innocent III who delegated the Bishop of Belluno and Feltro Turisini as judge in question. The parties are summoned, and the procurators of Forni di Sopra affirming that their church was of very ancient baptismal church date and matrix of all the other churches both of their own pertinence and of those of Forni di Sotto, asserting instead the procurators of Forni di Sotto on the contrary, after examining the titles and weighing the reasons of the parties; ruled that the Church of S. Maria e Martino di Forni di Sotto be recognized as Matrice, and that therefore a priest of that church should go to Forni di Sopra for the solemn blessing of the baptistery on Holy Saturday and the Vigil of Pentecost. There was later, however, in 1347 a new disagreement on the subject but nevertheless things proceeded relatively calmly until 1445. In that year, at the request of the municipality of Forni di Sopra. that at that time had a greater population of Forni di Sotto, Cardinal Lodovico Mezzarotta Patriarch of Aquileia raised their Church of S. Maria in parish directly dependent on the Patriarch. The parish priest and the Mayors of Forni di Sotto soon opposed this decree, but in 1448, thanks especially to Giovanni da Pistorio, they adhered with an agreement to the erection of Forni di Sopra in rural pievania demanding eighty ducats for the benefit of the prebend. parish church of Forni di Sotto. This agreement was sworn by the parties and soon confirmed by the Patriarch. But a fraction of discontent who immediately drew the Mayors and the Pievano himself to their side, complained to the Patriarch, saying that for this arrangement the public tranquility was seriously compromised, due to quarrels, and then disorders that arose for this cause in the two municipalities. The Patriarch instructed his Vicar, certain Guarnero di Artegna, to ascertain the matter and he, too credulous to discontent, in the hope of calming the minds, canceled the concordat in 1449 and put things back in their original state. But this only aggravated the controversy. Because the inhabitants of Forni di Sopra, through their Mayor, the learned notary Nicolò Buliola, resorted to Rome, and Pope Nicholas V in the year 1451 delegated Canon Giovanni di Maniago as judge in question. The latter, having better ascertained things and heard and discussed the reasons of the party, fully confirmed the agreement, and declared the church of S. Maria di Forni di Sopra to be completely immune from any subjection to Forni di Sotto; however, forcing that municipality to pay out eighty ducats to the parish priest of Forni di Sotto within three years. What if: the parish priest of Forni di Sotto refuses to accept them, they put them on deposit with a solvent person. This sentence was pronounced in the year 1455, but also against it they claimed those of Forni di Sotto saying they wanted to appeal to the Pontiff with better information, and before obtaining a definitive sentence came the year 1470.

At that time the Patriarchal Vicar Andrea Bishop of Ferentino imposed a good vault of. get it over with, and confirmed the agreement of 1448 again, adding to the eighty ducats to be paid out to the parish priest of Forni di Sotto another twenty for rent. But what? The parish priest refuses to accept them and has to fight again, until the year 1478 the Patriarchal Vicar ordered that the hundred ducats be invested in such an income from which an income of five ducats per year would come to the parish priest of Forni di Sotto, and a certain Bernardo was appointed as the first parish priest of Forni di Sopra. Compliments to this but nd those of Forni di Sopra pay this amount to Savorgnano who asks for guarantor for the annual level, certain Bernardino Sbroiavacca nobleman from Udine. But those from Forni di Sotto protest again, saying that Savorgnano, being their Lord, put reverence in the collection, and Sbroiavacca being too far away made repayment burdensome. Again they get into litigation and finally in 1494 the Chapter Vicar certain Geronimo imposed an end to every dispute, declaring the deposit made valid and threatening them with ecclesiastical penalties if they still dared to put this question before them. Having nothing less than in 1512 the Pievano di Forni di Sotto Sebastiano de Signoribus had to again put himself in dispute over two rents left by Savorgnano and Sbroiavacca in arrears; the level was extinguished, and invested in many permanent assets in the municipality of Forni itself.

The sixteenth century opened with the descent of Maximilian emperor against the Venetian Republic (1508) and one of the main leaders who opposed the descent of the Germans was Girolamo Savorgnan. He began to take part in the war in Cadore, and from Forni in the middle of winter he entered the Mauria in Lorenzago to help Alviano. The two brave generals fully defeated the enemy in the famous battle of Rusecco which took place between the towns of Tai and Valle di Cadore. In June 1509 the Germans with their leader Anhalt for Mauria entered the Codore again, but on reaching Domegge, they were defeated again in Vallesella by the Cadorini and Venetians. In 1512 a truce was made, but hostilities soon resumed, soon the whole province fell under the German with the exception of the castle of Osoppo validly defended by Savorgnano; but as a result of this the fate soon changed, the German was. definitely defeated and the homeland was free. In these wars, beyond the 100 spears set up, some valiant men from Forni also took part in person, and were highly praised by the Lieutenant, and their prowess and loyalty was always included in the requests they made in 1520 for the exemption from work in the Ponte d’Ariis, and in 1522 for the exemption from the convict tax. The plague, which reappeared in the province in the year 1511, was also now joined to the scourge of war. The two villages of Forni were also greatly frightened, as an ancient memory expresses, by the pestial scourge that was incurring closely and was already beginning to suffer. the country; for which they made a vow in Forni di Sopra to build a sacred chapel to the Blessed Virgin of Health, which they built in 1515 with the combined images of S. Rocco di S. Sebastiano; in Forni di Sotto they decreed to erect a chapel in honor of San Rocco and it was erected in 1521, and immediately the town felt the benefit of being liberated from such a scourge.

Even in this century there was no lack of quarrels. There were disputes with Savorgnano in 1520-22 and again in 1564. There were disputes between two municipalities in 1560 over the Ruodia wood, and two years later over the Rio Verde road. The maintenance of the road that extended from this stream to the boundaries of Ampezzo was the responsibility of the municipality of Forni di Sopra, and from the Rio Fielda (Vignorosa} up to the church of S. Antonio del Corso, the responsibility of the municipality of Forni di Sotto . The two villages had protested against this undue burden since 1422; and in 1467 and again in 1470, the Serenissima sentenced the municipality of Ampezzo to maintain the road up to its border. del Rio Verde, and for it he began to quarrel with Forni di Sotto, a dispute that was closed on September 26, 1562. Forni di Sotto was forced to take over the maintenance, but Forni di Sopra had to undertake the trunk of the road that leads from Marodia to Mezzavia as well as pay eighty Ducati to Forni Inferiore as compensation.

They also quarreled among themselves in 1580 for pastures and Forni di Sopra in 1575 sustained a dispute over borders with Cimolais.

But at the end of the century some years of horrible famine arrived for the two countries. As early as 1571 Forni Sotto was forced to resort to a loan in common for grain supply, and in 1596 Forni di Sopra had recourse to a loan of 500 Ducats from the Nun Cristina Zorzi. The worst was that the surrounding peoples had formed a kind of monopoly on foodstuffs, a sign that in 1578 the Lieutenant himself had to intervene to regulate the contracts: and in 1590 the misery was reduced to such an extent that the Lieutenant Donà had to prohibit under penalty of ban and jail to creditors to execute private debts until the next harvest.

Except for the war that took place between the Republic and Archduke Ferdinand on the primordial period, the following century passed without any warfare; but for our two communes there was no lack of quarrels and internal discord.

They fought to be exempted from contributing to the construction of the fortress of Osoppo, and were dispensed from by the Lieutenantl 1630. Eight years later, having been harassed again for this aggravation, they went into open rebellion and rejected the same letters of invitation, for which they were severely imposed in a duchy of the Serenissima. They fought for the exemption of the taxation duties against Ampezzo and Pieve di Cadore; they fought for the exemption from the convict tax and obtained, as in 1522, a new relief in 1655. They finally fought to be separated, in milling duties, from the rest of Carnia; and in 1656 they were granted by the doge Bertucio Valerio, indeed the milling duties were reduced for the two ovens V. L. 343.18.

However, this century marked progress for the two countries. In fact, we see the textile industry increasingly expanding and education progressing. In the two countries there are several notaries through which the Statutes or Rules began to be drawn up in Forni di Sotto in 1606, and in Forni di Sopra in 1640, which formed a code of internal regulation of the two countries; and at the end of the century the incomes of the parish prebend of Forni di Sopra were also arranged by the parish priest De Micheli. However, the end of this century was devastated by the terrible flood of August 1692.

There were actually other mournful disasters in this century, and the year 1632 in which the two villages were devastated by terrible floods will always remain memorable, but they are nothing compared to the aforementioned flood of 1692.

Two days and two continuous nights. (This is how Grassi describes it), it was so much and so furious that the floodgates of the sky and the abysses of the earth seemed to have opened. Sources sprang up where they had not been before and with the thunder the earth trembled: because such fear entered men that many believed that the end of the world had already arrived ».

«And from this impetuous excrescence of the streams, (as the Doge Giovanni Cornelio expresses himself in a letter of 1713), the streets, buildings and churches were flooded, villas were devastated and land devoured upstream and downhill; and therefore public piety was rightly moved and with paternal predilection and concurrence in suffrage for the necessary repairs calculated for the sum of Duchies 170,000; forgiving the millstone duty for two decades ».

From this amnesty, however, extended for 28 years to all of Carnia, the two Forni Savorgnani were excluded as they were separated from Carnia itself. Not that here there were no complaints about serious damage: that proof is enough to recall the subjugation of Buarta, a town located almost on the border of Forni di Sotto, where most of the inhabitants perished; and the Tagliamento, having intercepted the passage by the avalanche, had had to recede, forming a large lake. So much so that after having examined and pondered things better, in 1707 these two municipalities were also included in the pardon.

Although, however, this flood must have certainly remained memorable for many centuries, its memory was soon canceled for Forni di Sopra, by another even more memorable one which occurred in 1748. Dessa was caused by a storm that suddenly, as it is a contemporary chronicler expresses, «he swelled the water of Tollina so much that he tore down the rectory with the adjoining garden from its foundations and as soon as Piovano was able to save his life by remaining a shipwrecked man with the pure and only clothes he wore. In this flood all the memories of the Battizii Sposalizii and Mortori perished in a con that contained in the aforementioned rectory which had become a mockery and target of the high waves ». Together with the rectory the rush of the current removed 14 other houses that formed the village Cià di Pavon, and produced such damage everywhere, that to perpetuate the memory, on August 18 every year it is used here to give a sign with the touch of all the bells .

Except for the dispute against Tolmezzo for Pontasio in the beginning, and the one sustained by the municipality of Forni di Sopra against the Schiaulini brothers for the reconfiguration of 1796 at the end, this century passed fairly quietly for the two municipalities. Industries continued to prosper, the cultivation of corn and potatoes spread, and agriculture cultivated with new products on a larger scale, put a stop to the frequent famines from which they were often troubled in the past. Forni di Sotto took advantage of this prosperity to build the small church of S. Rocco in 1736, and in 1775 he started the construction of the New Parish Church which in a decade he was completing. Consecrated in 1790, this church has three holy bodies, namely that of S. Celestino M. owned since 1775, that of S. Minia M. located in 1821, and that of San Istercoria in 1885. Besides the ancient church of S Lorenzo, which boasts at least 5 centuries of antiquity, still starts the Church of the BV in Forni di Sotto of the Pietà which was restored in 1824. Taking advantage of this economic well-being, Forni di Sopra built its magnificent bell tower in 1776 and later the two villages afthey franked in 1799 every level of their tithe with the Savorgnani; but this prosperity of theirs soon vanished at the very end of the century.

With the fall of the Venetian Republic in 1797, the two villages of Forni were incorporated into Cadore by the French government: and soon began the famous requisitions that from the wagons, oxen and hay ended up with the shirts, the bed blankets and the silverware of the Churches. .

«And from these fatal requisitions and aggravations, as expressed in a resolution of September 15, 1802 of the municipality of Forni di Sopra, the consumption of part of the vizze and woods making up his patrimony began. The causes, (continues), supported below, the confinement of municipal assets and other commitments, caused another good part of the extermination of the woods, and finally the general and replicated distributions of grass and money in these years of disease and scarcity caused the ultimate extermination of this unique heritage of theirs. “

Established in 1815 the Lombard-Veneto kingdom, Forni di Sopra to relieve the misery from which the inhabitants were oppressed, passed to a subdivision of part of the municipal goods, but the misery worsened and became horrible in the years 1816-17-18. Then came years of abundance and quiet, and these Forni di Sopra took advantage to build its vast parish church in the six-year period 1835-41 and soon in the three-year period 1849-52 it built the Church of the B. V. della Salute. Beyond these two churches and that of S. Floriano from the beginning mentioned, which boasts almost six centuries of antiquity, there is the Church of S. Vito in Andrazza built in 1626, and again restored in 1742, being partly together with five neighboring houses destroyed by fire, and that of S. Giacomo in Vico. This last church of very ancient date was restored in 1461 as can be seen from the Gothic inscription placed on the main door Anno Domini MCCCCLXI of the last table Madij aedifica finiti haec Ecclesia.

Except for the insurrection of 1848 in which the two countries took part with the resistance to the Pass of Death; no weapons of fate happened; and therefore education and industry prospered here more and more. And today thanks to the numerous and intelligent artists who travel around Europe and even far away America, thanks to the establishment of four thriving social dairies, thanks to the easy communications made by the new national road in May 1881, and to the various forastieri who in the summer season they come to breathe this balmy air; local conditions are far favored, and everything gives us hope that a prosperous future will make us forget past misery.